an imperial parure: the louvre has achieved a remarkable coup by purchasing--for the highest price ever paid by a museum for items of jewellery--the necklace and earrings which formed part of the emerald parure commissioned by napoleon for the empress mar
The Armys Louvre recently received a necklace and a pair of emerald and diamond earrings as part of a gift from Napoleon I to Queen Mary Louise when they got married, inMarch 1810 (Fig. 1).
Because the price--3. 7 million euros--
A high price paid by an agency for jewelry, one is likely to ask what is special about the two pieces of jewelry from Humphrey Butler and S. J.
Phillips in London and Thomas Faber in Geneva(1)
The answer is that the combination of the intrinsic value of the stone, the artistry of the background and the Imperial background proves that the price usually paid for painting and sculpture is reasonable.
The magnificent qualities illustrate Napoleon, perhaps the last great patron of art, how to use jewelry to peacefully preserve the absolute political authority he won with his sword.
To this end, he insisted that the Imperial Palace ceremony was held in an atmosphere of great splendor and splendor, which could be obtained through the display of magnificent gems.
This was the culmination of his marriage to Mary Louis, the Duchess of Habsburg.
Then, as Balzac described in Paris, "Diamonds sparkled everywhere so that the wealth of the whole world seemed to be concentrated in Paris. . .
This diamond has never been so searched and has never been so expensive.
At the same time, Napoleon hopes to tear
Establishing Paris as a center of excellence for luxury and fashion ideas is what it lost in the post-revolution period of anarchy.
The sponsorship of him and imperial dignitaries was so large that 1807, Chambre de Commerce reported that there were 400 Zhubao merchants in the city, employing 800 men and 2000 women to do business. (2)
This is one of them, Mary Etienne Nieto, whom Napoleon appointed as his court jeweler under his affirmative judgment.
Nitot was trained by the strict standards of the ancient regime, and he is already known for his cooperation with Queen Louis Harvey and Queen Mary Antoinette's suppliers, Aubert.
After Mary Etienne's death in 1809, his son Francois Regnault took over from him. (3)
As a gem expert, Napoleon hired his father and son from the consulate to repatriate the scattered gems from Kuron Island (4)
And get stones for the solemn party-
Set of decorations, headwear, combs, earrings, necklaces, buckles and bracelets, designed with stone ---
It was a mockery of major events such as marriage, Coronation, state visits and court dances.
"Due to the limited emerald collection in culong county", Francois Regot Nito had to make a new acquisition of the following squares and briolette --
Marie asfaerber says cutting stones for the funeral of Queen Mary Louise weighs a total of 290 karat: the collection of such exquisite colored musthave's Emeralds brought him great although the stones in the jewelry of this date are usually defective, but all the stones in the necklace and earrings are "of superior quality, it's almost clean ", like 150 km from the famous Muzo Columbia Northwest of Bogota.
The contrast with the surrounding diamonds deepens the strong green color.
This design is very classical in character, in line with the style designed by architects Charles pesie and Pierre Fontaine for the Empire, and the Diamonds clearly outline the symmetrical arrangement of alternating diamonds and oval shapes, hang between palmettes from Greek and Roman art.
Despite her desire for Queen Josephine's grace, her height, porcelain-like complexion, blonde hair and blue eyes are enough to sustain her character on all official occasions.
She may then wear the emerald with a grand residence for her by Le Roy, perhaps white gauze embroidered in gold, or a tulle ball gown embroidered with silver poppy.
Napoleon, in honor of his union with a daughter of the Greensboro dynasty, gave the Queen this gift of a private collection, so it was never a national property.
This means that after the decline of the empire, it is still in good condition owned by her, and therefore free from the fate of the crown jewels she has returned.
These were almost all transformed during the restoration and the Second Empire and eventually dispersed during the disastrous sale of Bijoux de laCouronne in the Third Republic in 18 years.
From the King of Rome or the Duke of Reichstadt--
Emile song of Napoleon--
Before she dies, she can handle her jewelry as much as she wants.
She will be in 1847 with 'matante l'archidchesse Elise's Magran three-piece suit d'emdraudes etdiamants sistant d'un Diademe, not Zhuang a poires, une Parre de boucles d'oreilles, un Peigne et une de plaque ceinture '. (7)
After marrying the son of liopod II, the Grand Duke Reina, the Grand Duke Lizer left the manor to their son, the cousin of the Grand Duke Leopold, the godson, and Queen Mary Louis, finally, it came to Grand Duke Carl Albrecht, who died in 1951.
On May 28, 1952, the widow of Carl Albrecht, the Duchess of Alice (Fig. 2)
Her son, Grand Duke Carl Stephen, signed an affidavit in front of Stockholm's notary, proving the origin and ownership of parure. (8)
In this statement, they stressed that the Austrian royal family has always regarded the jewels as the best of Mary Louise's collection.
This document further states that this document is hidden behind the Iron Curtain of Polish family property, but when it was brought to Sweden, the original saddle --
There is a shape box with a detailed list and a record of the Queen's legacy, which can only be left, with little hope of recycling. (9)[
Figure 1 slightly]
By this time, the comb has been changed in order to be worn as an inappropriate headwear (Fig. 3)
But everything else was made for Mary Louis in 1810.
It was a prelude to a sale, and soon afterwards, Van cleah bought the headdress and the buckle, and he took off the emerald and reset them to up-to-
Date styles for customers such as Bill Harrington in Texas (Fig. 4).
Although Emerald was removed from the headwear, the diamond was not removed and the diamond was filled with empty settings (Fig. 6)
It was acquired by Mrs. Marjorie Merritt Post, The Washington hostess (Fig. 5)
He gave it to the Smithsonian Institution. (9)
Fortunately, the earrings and earrings were still intact and sold to a private owner who lent them to the exhibition "dix Siecles de joailleri, held at the Louvre on 1962(10)[FIGURES 3-6 OMITTED]
Over the next 20 years, the jewelry has never been admired and curious when worn in important social activities such as the state visit.
They left a deep impression on Cynthia Gladwin, the wife of the British ambassador to Paris, who commented on Queen Elizabeth II's state visit to torparis in 1957(11)
They are also thought to be hanging around the neck of a young Habsburg, dancing in the House of the Duke of bukeruk in Boton, Northampton, on 1988.
Now, if an outstanding woman can no longer wear them, it seems appropriate that these jewel masterpieces, which embody the grandeur of the Empire. It should be on display permanently at the Louvre's Apollo, a mythical name according to Henry James. . .
Breathe the glory of the general.
This glymeant. . .
Not only is it beautiful, artistic and supreme design, history, reputation and power that make the world the richest and most noble. (12)(1)
Humphrey Butler negotiated the sale of argum's headwear to the Louvre in 2002. S. J.
In the past 15 years, Phillips has made historical jewelry and art a specialty.
Thomas Faber is an expert in stone. (2)S.
Grand jean "jewelry under the First Empire", "consumer", Volume 1
XCIII, December 1976275. (3)D.
Hurel, two centuries of fine jewelrycat.
The Paris museum, 1998. fig. 1, p.
22: Micro ofFrancois Regnault Nitot in the uniform of an officer in CisAlpineArmy, 1797. (4)B.
Crown Jewels of France, Paris, page 1988. 233-43,246. (5)
Inventory of 1791, Paris, Dia Mandela Coolon. part I, pp. 191-
99, Part Two, p. 290. (6)Morel, op. cit. , p,. 202.
The value of jewellery delivered at the end of March 1810 was 289.
In addition to beltplaque, 868 francs delivered in August 18, 1811291. (7)
A copy of the will, provided by Anne Odom, is kept in the archives of Hillwood, Washington. (8)
A copy of the affidavit, in the archives of hillswood, Washington.
Anne Odom's kindness(9)D. Scarlsbrick. Tiara, exh. cat.
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Zip code: 280053. (10)P. Verlet (ed. )
, Dix Sikes de jolei fracasi, exh. cat.
, Musee du Louvre, Paris, p. 87, No. 95. (11)M. Jebb (ed. )
Thu diary by Cynthia Gladwin, London, p. 1995211.
Diana scarabric hosted the exhibition "experience jewelry: Love and Happiness" at Chaumet (
12. Wanda Plaza, Paris),21 September-December 2, 2004.