three hunting pictures from 19th-century nepal. - simple necklace set
Documenting secular events of historical or biographical significance is almost unknown in traditional Nepalese art.
The three private collections of paintings discussed in this article are of cultural significance, as they reflect a breakthrough in this artistic tradition.
Based on the Devanagari inscription at the top of each composition, the paintings depict two safari expeditions by Bam Bahadur
1836 1845 the end of in Nepal of terai. [
Bahadur is a famous figure in the history of Nepal.
He was appointed special envoy to Kolkata. now Kolkata)
In the year between 1845 and 1856, he became Prime Minister of Nepal in the year57. (1)
More famous is his brother, Zhang Badur, who was the founder of the Rana dynasty, which visited Europe in 1850. (2)
During this unprecedented historical journey, Zhang Badur's works include Newari artist Bhajuman Chitrakar from Kathmandu. (3)
As we will see soon, the same artist may also be responsible for our painting, even though they pre-
Date of Jang Bahadur's European trip.
In the following pages, we will first provide a general review of the work, followed by a brief biography of Bam Bahadur.
We will then discuss the theme and style of painting, with special attention to the continuity of Newari art traditions, and some fundamental changes that have taken place on the eve of the upcoming
The general view is in putt-
The early style miniature model, the medium of these paintings is the water powder on the pale yellow and white thin paper.
Although such pictures in India and Nepal are almost always painted in color or paint, the current example does not follow this practice;
Instead, they are drawn directly on unprepared blank paper as the background of the painting.
This unusual feature immediately reminds us of the 18th-century Ajmer painting, which also takes the blank surface of the paper as the background.
Since there is no direct relationship between Ajmer and Newari art traditions, the Newari artist in charge of these works apparently developed the technology himself or learned the technology from different sources[
In the upper part of each painting, there is an inscription ingold in the Devanagari script, which provides us with a brief description of the scene depicted.
Although the inscription does not mention the date of the event, paintings can be arranged in chronological order, as each painting has the age of Bahadur.
So describe 18-year-
Accompanied by hunters and hunting dogs, the old Bam Bahadur walking in the dothyson Hills is the first painting (figure 1).
Doti is one of the most western regions of Nepal.
The second picture (figure 2)
The main character and his waiter were shown to discuss with enthusiasm the recent events of the same hunting adventure.
The theme of the third painting (figure 3)
It was a tiger hunt in the Madhuvani forest near Palpa Butwal. nine years later, Bam Bahadur was 27 years old.
Butwal is located in the city center.
It is located in the western branch of Nepal near Tailai.
Therefore, this Madhuvani is different from the well-known madhubani in Mitra (Bihar)
Located near terai, East Nepal. [
Figure 1 slightly][FIGURE OMITTED][
Figure 2:[FIGURE OMITTED][
Figure 3 slightly][FIGURE OMITTED]1.
Bahadur with hunters and hounds-
The line inscription on the first painting describes the scene in the following text: In this painting, Bam Bahadur faces the left, in three hounds and four muscular hunters
Dogs have different colors-
Shades of Black and Brown-
Each of them had a small bell around their neck.
Their prominent tones indicate that they are panting when they run in front of the team and are eager to chase.
Bam Bahadur is wearing a white Nepal hat, a simple necklace with an agolden charm box in the middle, a striped belt, a long-sleeved gray white top, black shoes
He carried a bow and arrow with a large Gurka knife or khukhrifashion on his belt.
He was fair-skinned, medium-sized, and had neatly combed black hair on his shoulders.
The lack of his figure and beard made him look like a boy.
By contrast, the hunter walking behind him was darker and rough
It looks like a huge body, untrimmed hair, long beard and wilderness.
Unlike Bahadur, these hunters don't wear shoes or tailor clothes.
Their upper body parts cover a piece of clothing through the shoulders and waist, knotting in the front of the chest, indicating that they are members of a specific race ---
Tharus of terai, Nepal. 2.
Bam Bahadur with the waiter
The line inscription on the painting reads: In the painting, Bam Bahadur represents attired with some modified version of the contemporary British Indian military uniform.
He wore a black hat with red and golden stripes on it and a golden tassel on his head. His short-
Long-sleeved red jacket with hard collar embroidery and gold leaf pattern.
A band embroidered in light blue, ending with a golden disc, dotted with each shoulder and sleeve hole.
The jacket is embroidered with blue leaves on the front. Golden-
The cuffs of the sleeves are covered with black velvet fur.
Although this is an unusual Western-style jacket, it is worn in a Nepalese style and is fastened to the flaps with a belt (Nepali patka)
This is also the traditional style of hulkry.
In addition to wearing a red jacket, Bam Bahadur also wore an agown-
Like his white robe pajamas above his knee.
Such as white trousers and black shoes.
His left hand is placed on the gold handle of a word wrapped in a dark pink sheath.
He pointed excitedly to the Hound with his right index finger.
The dog is the same as the dog in the first composition (figure 1)
It shows that the discussion between banbahadur and his entourage was about the same hunting expedition.
We can speculate that the unknown artist must have painted several different works in the same event.
The seven men wore jackets in red, blue and brown.
Trousers in white or light blue.
Four of them were wearing decorated black hats, while one was wearing a blue Nepal hat and the other was wearing a gray hat
A brown headscarf, a plain gray hat.
They stood in front of Bam Bahadur.
The leader standing in front greeted him with the gesture of Namaskara.
The man next to him is holding a fierce chain of iron. looking dogs.
These men are described in the inscription as ardali, a derivative of the British military term "orderly" and apply to soldiers assigned to do various household chores for commanders.
It is clear that Nepal's military system has begun to imitate the British Indian military system at this time.
Interestingly, however, the title of BamBahadur is subedar--
The Arabic word of the provincial governor.
The title was popular in Mughal/Rajput, India, but was abandoned during British rule.
It continued to survive in the early days of Shach in Nepal, as the palace culture of this period blended the Mughal/Rajput elements with the influence of the UK.
As we will see, this situation is also reflected in the style of the painting. 3.
The third picture of the tiger taken by bambahadur has the inscription of the following three lines: bambahadur is shown here with some wrinkles on his face, perhaps indicating his age,
He was wearing a dark blue jacket and light blue trousers with a hook in his belt.
He did not wear a hat this time, thus exposing his shikhaknot.
He stood on the elephant's neck, not on howdah, shooting the tiger with a gun with the handle of the gun placed under his right arm. The mattress-
Like howdah, the pink and blue patterns are currently occupied by his waiter, who holds up his right hand with a giant khukhri and touches his master's shoulder with protective gestures.
He is wearing a costume called kachad on Tharu and alower.
Another waiter standing near the tail of the elephant was dressed in custom clothing, a brown jacket, green brown trousers and a light blue Nepal hat.
The elephant in brown gray is very big.
But because it is tied with the giant tiger, its commemorative nature is greatly reduced, and the giant tiger is fatally shot and lying helplessly on the ground.
According to the inscription, the tiger is eight and a half cubits (sadheatha hat)long.
Obviously Bahadur is very proud of his achievements in hunting.
For this reason, the artist carefully rendered the tiger, showing the beard, black stripes and eyeballs with sparkling pupils.
Compare this exposition with the processing of other parts of the picture, such as the basic rendering tree with blue leaves and brown trunks at the right end of the temperature.
In addition, the bullet holes close to the left shoulder and front leg of the Tiger are symbolically rendered by a small circle, with little blood flowing out of the wound.
The tiger is not dead yet, because it is still looking up.
But apparently, like a fallen hero, it accepts defeat and death.
Bambahadur and his position in the history of Nepal, because bambahadur is the protagonist of our painting, it may be appropriate to briefly describe his life here.
He is the son of Barana Rahim kuval, a loyal bodyguard for Shah King Lana Bahadur in Nepal's political history, and he tries his best to protect him in the deadly attack of ruling family members.
The brother and Prime Minister of babahadur, Zhang Bahadur Lana, became the de facto ruler of Nepal and successfully established the Lana dynasty.
In a massacre in September 15, he was ruthlessly killed by almost all political enemies, in a magnificent building near the Royal Palace in Hanuman Dhoka, Kathmandu(4)
His six brothers, including babahadur, played an important role in the massacre, and after that, the Lana dynasty was able to control Nepal for more than a century.
Zhang Badur Larna was ruled until his death in 1877.
Under the rule of larnas, King Shah had little political power until the King of the nations of Trib (1951 (r. 1911-55)
Able to save Ranas from power.
The exact date of birth is not yet clear;
He was born at 1818 or 1819.
However, the inscriptions found in our paintings depicting Tiger hunting indicate that the second time the madhuvani hunting expedition took place at the time he was 27 years old, his position was encaptain.
If he was born on 1819, the year of the event could be counted as 1846 years old.
But it is worth noting that he was promoted from colonel captainto on September 18, 1846, three days after the Kot massacre. (5)
So, apparently, the Madhuvani Hunt was carried out before the massacre.
Summer and rainy seasons are not a good time to hunt because the malaria in telai is very serious at this time of year.
So we have every reason to believeyear-
Before the summer of 1846, old Bam Bahadur was in the forest of madouani.
This reasoning helped us figure out that he was born in 1818.
Tiger hunting took place at the end of 1845 or early 1846.
This view is also supported by the fact that 1844-
45 BamBahadur serves the Nepalese government in Kolkata as a diplomatic envoy vakil, responsible for reporting India's economic affairs to the Nepalese government and purchasing military equipment and other goods for Nepal. (6)
This particular stage of his life is important for studying our paintings, because the themes and some of the style elements we see in it clearly demonstrate the familiarity with the corporate genre paintings that are popular in big cities in India, kolkata in particular.
During the visit to Britain and France (January 15, 1850-
February 6, 1851)
Bahadur was appointed Prime Minister of Nepal. 7)
Eventually, he became prime minister of Augustus. (8)
About nine months later, on May 25, 1857, he died of tuberculosis. (9)
Although Bahadur held an important position in his life, he did not seem to have any ambition to take power.
Clearly, he continues to engage in contemporary politics mainly out of loyalty to his brother, Zhang Badur.
As we know from England Bahadur's letter to him from England, even when he was prime minister, he strictly followed his brother's orders and suggestions, not only irrelevant(10)
Our paintings have made him more interested in works of art, dogs of fine breed, and perhaps most interested in hunting.
As a member of Nepal's elite, he did come into contact with art activities in neighboring areas ---
Especially the corporate Painting Institute of Kolkata at that time.
Some of the new artistic elements we see in these works reflect the passion of the Bahadur people for new ideas.
This is ultimately reflected in the work of his artist, who must be encouraged to familiarize himself with the elements of the company's style. [
The theme and style of the painting deserves special attention, as it is guided by an unprecedented spirit, showing the portrait of the secular, recording biographical events without any religious connotations.
Despite the fact that we have found some examples of portraits in medieval sculptures and paintings, which cannot be described as secular, as these figures show kneeling in front of the image of a shrine or God, let the traditional gesture break away from the hand (namaskara)
Expressing their religious beliefs
In ancient times, King Licchavi was represented in exactly the same way, but disguised in the humanoid form of Vishnu's religious bird car Garuda. (11)
However, there is an exception to this convention.
Recently, a stone sculpture representing Lee chivikin javama was exposed.
As I explained in an earlier article, this sculpture is likely to be part of the devakula contraction that contains the portrait of the divine king of the ruling dynasty. (12)
The concept of this portrait gallery was originally introduced by Kushan Nadi, who ruled most parts of northern India, until modern times
Afghanistan is also interested in developing multicultural and artistic traditions.
Roman and Persian elements.
Even after the introduction of this novel concept about portraits, mainstream artists in South Asia, more Newari artists, have never had any serious interest in depicting portraits. (13)
Therefore, the concept is gradually forgotten and has been dormant for many centuries.
A commemorative portrait of the century of Nepal was discovered.
Zpaubha depicts the Dolakha nobles who work with the Puna brothers. (14)
It is true that the painting is not entirely secular, because it, like the Statue of Jayavarma, is also related to ancestor worship.
However, there is no doubt that the customs and luxury items depicted in the composition have nothing to do with religious piety, but rather depict palace life.
A painting by Vanaratna 'swife to alms, perhaps the same Puna brother, is another example of a portrait of a historical event.
Beautiful paintings depicting King pratamara's participation in the gift ceremony-giving (tuladana)
A third notable example. (15)
In addition, there are several murals in the Malla palace of Bhaktapur andKumari Chok, Kathmandu, depicting Malla king's devotion to Hindu gods.
All of these early examples are directly or indirectly related to religious activities. [
Nepal's pure secular portrait painting began to appear in Shah.
Perhaps the portrait of Shah King Lana Bahadur was the earliest example, drawn after becoming a yogi in the early 19 th century.
However, the authenticity of the work is questionable.
We also have two other formal portraits, about 1815, representing King jevana udadavram. (16)
They're all in museums in the United States. -
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Free Gallery in Washington, D. C.
The latter has an inscription in Persian writing, indicating that this is the work of a trained artist in India
The Persian style may be aNepali or Indian.
The artist's realism approach and similarities with King Shah, who died at the age of 19, suggest that both pieces were commissioned during the nanny's lifetime.
However, these formal portraits are different from the performance of banbahadur in our painting, because the latter does not show much interest in presenting the aura of form, it is presented to capture real-life events for the audience.
Bahadur with waiter (figure 2)
It is indeed an idealized formal portrait, but here it is used to represent an important person to show his "order" to the audience or Darshan after a hunting expedition"
Therefore, our paintings can be designated as examples of early reliable secular paintings showing historical events related to the protagonist.
Hunting scenes are another rare phenomenon in Nepalese art.
Only when it is necessary to zone the hunting scene in the narrative of puranas and epic, will the Nepalese artist describe the scene ---
Even so, there is not much enthusiasm.
In fact, I am not familiar with the examples of any other works of art that show the historical figures of Nepal engaged in hunting before the 19 th century.
So if I'm not mistaken, the May 3 figure is the earliest example of such work known so far.
In addition, in this work, the artist tries to avoid the cruel side of the hunt, depicting as little blood as possible.
Before we study the style elements of painting, we would like to discuss here the interesting usage of the Nepali word khaiciyako in all three inscriptions.
I translated the word "draw ".
In South Asian languages, including the Nepali language, verbkhichnu literally means "attracting yourself or attraction like sucking ".
When introducing photography, people who speak the Nepali language began to use the word to take pictures, as did people in Hindi, bharatti and Bengali.
This verbis was never used for painting or painting in Nepal before the camera was launched;
Instead of the verb lekhnu (Nepali), or cvayegu (Newari)
Both mean "write" and are always used.
Because in Nepal, when this painting series was made, photography was already known, so the author of the inscription, in addition to the painter himself, can not be regarded as someone else, must be right
He clearly wants to convey the message that his photos have the quality of the photos because they depict the scenes that happen in reality.
However, it is clear from a look at these pictures that the artist is not familiar with the concept of realistic representation based on actual observation.
In a painting that shows Bam Bahadur sitting in a chair (figure 2)
For example, the artist did not provide us with any clues as to whether the activity was conducted indoors or outdoors.
No attempt was made to define the foreground or background.
As we mentioned earlier, this scene is depicted directly on unpainted paper without any representation.
In the image taken by the Tiger (figure 3)
The deep forest of Madhuvani symbolizes a blue leaf and a weed on the ground.
This treatment immediately reminds us of the 7 th.
The text of the century Sanskrit, Vishnudharmottara Purana, is a popular manual on artists.
The text specifies a symbolic description of the scene, such as indicating the sky with birds. (17)
In addition, the image of Bam Bahadur and his waiter (figure2)
Described in a traditional way--
He is more representative than other characters.
Therefore, he was sitting in the same height as the soldiers standing.
But in the case of Bahadur, who shows hunters and dogs (figure 1)
He looks much smaller than the hunter because the artist is concerned with their physical strength and huge body.
Similarly, in the painting of the Tiger by Bam Bahadur (figure 3)
The commemorative nature of the tiger is emphasized.
So even elephants are no bigger than tigers.
Typically, the human body is depicted here as three
The quarterly profile, while their count is almost always complete, is a notable stylistic element that originated from the early raj putt tradition, but is widely popular in South Asia in the 16 th to 19 th centuries.
The preference for linear processing rather than painting is another unchanging feature in Nepal's history.
Thus, it is clear that although the court artist succeeded in introducing an unprecedented biographical theme, he continued to use the early stylistic elements.
This does not mean that artists have not tried to innovate or learn new skills.
In fact, if these paintings are compared with other works of the Shah period, such as The Illustrated "bojiavanta pure", (18)
Obviously, our artists have made quite a big change in style.
Unlike earlier works, the characters presented here are very different from others in terms of age, physical features and personality.
These dogs are a special type of dog that may be an indigenous breed (Figures 1 and 2).
This unprecedented success in rendering the accepted realistic animal image seems to be inspired by the artist's "photography" approach to painting.
I think not only the animals, but also the image of the hunters and ministers are making such a huge effort in terms of realism that their contemporaries can recognize them immediately.
Perhaps the most interesting feature of these images is the combination of two different and contradictory artistic approaches: Realism and idealization.
On behalf of hunters, service soldiers and dogs (Figures 1 and 2)
The artist does his best to achieve the similarity of characters that render personal traits, such as unruly hair, prominent cheekbones, wrinkles, and so on.
The audience may find this method in the shooting of the Tiger by Bam Bahadur (figure 3).
But when he was sitting with his services, he was treated completely differently (figure 2).
This is an idealized portrait without any attempt to capture personal traits.
Compare this portrait with the picture of Bahadur that we were lucky enough to get.
This photo is published in the biography of Zhang Badur Lana by pudma junara. (19)
This book is in sync with our paintings. -
The author is the nephew of Bahadur.
The round face of Bam Bahadur, the fleshy cheeks, the short nose and the relatively small eyes seen in the photos contrast to the idealized features ---
Long thin face, pointed nose, big eyes-
The portrait he painted
It is worth noting that all of these features also appear in the portraits of BhajumanChitrakar, the court artist of zhangbadur. (20)
In fact, it is these similarities that lead us to believe that the same artists may be responsible for our paintings.
In the last sentence, the main meaning of these paintings is based on the fact that they were presented during a transitional period when Newari artists were unable to give up the ancient features inherited traditionally, but at the same time explore new possibilities for presenting works more realistically.
Nepalese artists did not come into direct contact with Western art until they visited the UK in 1850.
If the paintings are the work of this famous artist, which is not possible, it would be very interesting to compare them with the later works after bhajuman came back from England.
We hope that future investigations will reveal these real works. NOTES (1)
Adrian Sever, Nepal overthrew the Lana regime, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. , Ltd.
New Delhi, Page 1993. 94, 99. (2)Ibid. , pp. 70-74. (3)
Pudma Zheng Bahadur Lana, life of the King of Nepal, Pioneer Press, Allahabad, P. 1909116. (4)H.
Ambrose Oldfield, Sketch of Nepal, Cosmo Publication, Delhi, volume 19741, p. 356. (5)
Lana, life of Mr. Maharaja, Nepal81. (6)
Nepal, pp. 99-100. (7)
Lana, life of Mr. Maharaja, Nepal115. (8)
Naja Raja Panta, Nepalese, No. 58(January-April 1973), pp. 19-26. (9)
Sketch of Oldfield, Nepal, Volume 12, p. 19. (10)
Nepal, pp. 119-20. (11)
Prata Padia pal, Institute of Art of Nepal (2 parts), E. J.
Brier, Leiden, 1974, part 1 (Sculpture), pp. 72-73. (12)
Gautama Vajracharya, "triple intimacy: an outstanding portrait of Nepal has been discovered recently", Orientations, Volume 134, No. 4 (2003), pp. 40-45. (13)
For example, Royal portraits did appear on ancient Indian coins, but they did not appear until the last century.
The bust on KingTribhuvan Nepalicoin was attended by the earliest minority delegates. (14)
Vajracharya, triple intimacy, pp. 40-45. (15)
Gautama Vajracharya, "Painting History: Tula Dana Ramini in the Palace of medieval Nepal", orientation, Volume 134,No. 10 (2003), pp. 46-51. (16)
Art of Nepal, Part II (Painting), pp, 129-31, fig. 195.
Nepalese art: Collection catalogue of Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, page 1985231, fig. P39. (17)
Vishnudharmottara to the book of the world, 42. 57. (18)
Art of Nepal, Part 2, p. 102. (19)
Lana, life of Mr. Maharaja, Nepal55. (20)
Nepal, Nepal, p. 75.